Number-theory tools Each title links to where the respective tool is explained. Formatting preferences Large integers Modulo operation Integer conversion Additive groups Operation table Repetition table Subgroup cosets Multiplicative groups Operation table Repetition table Subgroup cosets Prime numbers Extended Euclidean algorithm Modular equation Chinese remainder theorem Fermat primality test Miller-Rabin primality test Prime number generation Prime factorization Trial division Pollardâ€™s rho factorization Group algorithms Element order Generator search Rings and fields Calculator Simple square roots Tonelli-Shanks algorithm Modular square roots Elliptic curves Point calculator secp256k1 Operation table Repetition table Subgroup cosets DL algorithms Binary repetition Exhaustive search Baby-step giant-step Pollardâ€™s rho algorithm Pohlig-Hellman algorithm Index-calculus algorithm